Understanding and the saving of human life
Spirit Lifts Us
As a cultural anthropologist, this author has become very familiar with the Lao Hmong. They are a very small minority southeast Asian minority group that has lived in the United States since the close of the Vietnam War. They immigrated to the United States from northern Laos. They also live in China, Burma and Thailand. However, the Hmong in the United States come primarily from Laos. In that country, they were self-sufficient on farms where they had a very labor intensive lifestyle.
They encountered American culture first during their involvement in the Vietnam War. Throughout the 1960s, the American Central Intelligence Agency recruited the Hmong and trained and armed their soldiers to help patrol the Ho Chi Min Trail and to prevent North Vietnamese incursions into Laos and South Vietnam in the areas that the Hmong lived in. Their American protection came to an abrupt end at the conclusion of the war in 1975. This left the Hmong people at the mercy of retribution from the Vietnamese and the now communist Pathet Lao central government who sought revenge for suffering caused by the American led Vietnam War (Fadden 124-9).
This situation became very desperate for the Hmong. Hundreds of thousands of them crossed the Laotian border into Thailand to escape this persecution. Of course, many died during this exodus. After their arrival in Thailand, they settled down in very large refugee camps where they began learning new languages and about Western society, in particular in the United States. By the 1980s, the United States had given them preferential refugee status. This prompted a sizable amount to immigrate to the United States. Their population is growing in the United States (ibid 5).
The Hmong have their own language, although it exhibits many dialects. The main dialects which most of the United States Hmong speak is called red or green. To complicate matters, the Hmong language did not exist in written form until the late 1960’s. It has very few medical terms. To deal with this, the Hmong (especially the older ones) speak in metaphors about medical issues. For this reason and to interpret the language, non-Hmong need some knowledge of the Hmong culture to understand what the Hmong are saying.
The Hmong have a very structured culture of clans. Much is determined by ancestral lineage and which traditional ceremonies are practiced. If two different families practice the same ceremony, they are probably descended from the same ancestor. Hmong families tend to be large and extended. This large family, extensions and all is considered to be one whole. Each of the clans has a leader who is usually the father. The mother has less respect. However, in the living arrangements that the Hmong are finding themselves in now, mothers are making more and more leadership decisions. This is especially so in younger Hmong families (ibid 227).
The elderly among the Hmong are the most respected members of the family. These elderly Hmong are consulted when decisions need to be made. They make discipline decisions with regard to younger children. The elderly stay with the families their entire lives. Primary clan decisions are made by the shamans or other clan leaders. In any case, the other shaman will help the clan leader make decisions. The Hmong have a number of religious beliefs that are native to their land. In addition, a large number have decided to become Christians.
Amongst the older Hmong (30 years of age or older), many have long-term effects from United States delivered chemicals such as “yellow rain” or other poisons or problems with internal parasitic worms and other diseases including tuberculosis, anemia, depression or some post traumatic stress syndrome (ibid 133). They have only been exposed to western medicine for the last few decades. Traditional Hmong see illness from a holistic perspective and perfect health is achieved by balancing the body and the spirit. These older Hmong may wee the causes as being spiritual, to include evil spirits or as they call them, dabs (ibid 4).
An ancestor may be unhappy. They may require animal sacrifices to appease them. In other words someone may have done something to offend the family’s spirits or ancestors who may have cursed the family (ibid 96). Preventative treatment of disease was unknown in the old country and the older Hmong treat illness when it comes. The Hmong have traditional treatment types such as acupuncture. Many times they will not allow antibiotics because of the belief that it is not good to bring foreign material into the body (ibid 34). Surgery is rarely acceptable unless laboratory or other tests identify it. Immunization is not acceptable due to the idea that it is not good to put something in the body. Herbal medicine is widely practiced. Given the lack of verbal language and the description of disease in traditional Hmong descriptions, the BaFa game is helpful (ibid 271).
We will be discussing here between a particular encounter between a Hmong family and medical officials here in Merced as an example. The Lee’s had a daughter with epileptic seizures. Due to their lack of English, they had trouble communicating with the doctors. As their daughter’s condition worsened, they began to doubt the effectiveness of the treatment that their daughter was receiving, especially since Lia Lee has become brain damaged due to her illnesses. Their trip to the county hospital medical emergency room in Merced caused the chain of events that led to a cultural confrontation. The unfortunate illnesses, caused by the lack of communication between the parents and the medical officials caused the foster placement of Lia, causing great pain to the parents. The child’s treatment regimen caused a cultural clash with the family’s traditional beliefs about epilepsy. In their belief system, only the Shaman can deliver their child (ibid 93).
Unlike European immigrants who came to the United States to assimilate and become a part of American culture, the Hmong left Laos to escape the destruction of their culture and the decimation of it at the hand of the other Laos peoples and the Vietnamese.
The account of the Lees is one of the more extreme cases of course but not unique. How many times has the public heard of deeply religious individuals such as Jehovah’s witnesses who refuse life saving blood transfusions. Such families are insular (ibid 80). The Hmong have their cultural issues like many other American families. They also have their share of conformists with the outside majority culture. Many of the younger Hmong accept the dictates of Western medicine as a matter of course, including modern views on birth control. The story of Mrs. Lee having 12 children by herself in Laos is not known here amongst the younger Hmong families with no immediate knowledge of Laos physically and whose cultural and other ties to the old country are tenuous.
While we can be empathetic with the Lees and can take into consideration their cultural wishes, there is a limit to this. There has to be a middle ground between cultural understanding and the saving of human life. Since the child is brain damaged and her ability to reach certain milestones in life are limited as a developmentally challenged patient, the medical community needs to be patient with the family. We know that Lia is a favorite child and is receiving the best and most loving care from the family. However, when it comes to the immediate threats to the child’s life and health, there is only a certain amount that can be tolerated (ibid 55, 90, 110).
However, we can treat many of the medical issues that children and adults such as Lia have in a more holistic fashion, especially since many types of Oriental medicine such as acupuncture have now become widely accepted in Western medicine (ibid 34). We know that we do not know everything in the West. However, many aspects of the Hmong are also just coming out of the Middle Ages and there is only so much that can be tolerated and there must be a demand for a middle ground in the way that western medicine and culture deals with medical issues when the science and the treatment regimen is clear. For instance, Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome needs to be studied (ibid 188n).
As stated in the book, “Although the Hmong believe that illness can be caused by a variety of sources – […] by far the most common cause of illness is soul loss” (ibid 10). To bring these souls back into the body and to bring bodily health, soul calling ceremonies are seen to be important to the Hmong. There is no reason that such cultural flourishes can be tolerated and incorporated into the treatment regimen. After all, in any hospital, we tolerate and encourage pastors of Christian religions to come in and minister to their patients and pray. Should we be so intolerant when the Hmong bring their shamans into the medical treatment facilities. In the present day, we know so much about psychosomatic causes of illnesses. If such traditional ceremonies bring peace and joy to the practitioners, they may be willing to give ground and compromise on some certain other issues.
Fadiman, . The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York: Ferrar, Straus Giroux,
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!