Progress of Electric Railways in Japan 15 pages
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. Suppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United States has a moon base — or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? Someone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future and about worlds based on different technologies and alternate energies technology are not always right.
Today, most energy used in the United States is generated from sources that use coal, oil, or natural gas, either directly or as a way to generate electricity. A small percentage of electricity is generated from alternative fuels such as solar power, wind, biofuels, geothermal power, water power, or other sources. People in the modern United States relies heavily on the same old highly-polluting fuels it has been using — and using up — for decades, but society seems to be moving slowly toward greater use of alternate energy sources. Research into alternate energy is a growing field and more sources of energy are being developed and put into use every day. Is energy interchangeable or will changing the basic source of energy in the United States radically change daily life?
Many people believe that alternate energy sources could have a large impact on common aspects of daily life. But how would home life, transportation and travel, entertainment, or eating habits really change in the United States if the country were to rely mainly on alternative forms of energy as fuel? Some people believe that the future can be easily discerned by tracing the developments being made at present, but that isn’t always the case. Technology and society are both complex, and the capabilities we may believe we are on the verge of achieving may be much farther away than we think — while meanwhile, as history shows, the next hot thing could turn out to be something we would never guess.
It would seem ironic at first glance at on the U.S. Department of Energy’s web page about how to use solar energy, the 5-point list includes the use of a clothesline to dry clothes (U.S. Department of Energy, 2011, para 2). When people think about using solar power in the home, they are probably quick to envision gleaming black solar energy-collector panels strategically mounted on a rooftop, collecting the sun’s rays and transforming them into electricity. The average person’s short list of how to use solar energy probably doesn’t even include laundry. Yet the sun has been the primary source of dried laundry for thousands of years. One hundred years ago, clotheslines were in common use in houses all over the United States, while today, nearly all laundry is instead dried using an electric-powered clothes dryer appliance. And yet the simple clothesline has the advantage of being the most direct way to use solar energy in the home, and also of being the cheapest way to dry clothing.
As a student, I don’t have a sunny backyard in which to hang a clothesline, but like many students, I’m familiar with the concept of drying clothes outside of dryers. Many students, wishing to save their quarters for better activities, make use of alternate energy sources like solar rays or wind, by laying their clothes out to dry. In the summer, daily life wouldn’t change much if people were to use the sun to dry their clothes. In the winter, however, most people would have to dry their clothes indoors, and would probably consider doing so a big hassle. Still, the clothesline is still common and familiar enough that if people had to give up the use of their dryer, they would probably manage well enough without big changes in their daily home life.
The more easily-envisioned futuristic use of solar power would involve using roof-mounted solar panels to collect energy for home use. In recent years, many solar panel dealers have begun to market their products to homeowners in the United States, touting the green qualities of their products, claiming that solar energy can be collected cheaply, and that excess energy can sometimes even be sold back to the local power company. These touted benefits are not always the case, although better systems are developed every year that can collect more energy at a lower cost.
The idea of selling electricity back to the power company may be particular compelling for Americans given the rise in fuel costs in recent years. Most homeowners wouldn’t mind making money passively through their home-based solar energy collectors, and many might feel inspired to install additional solar energy collection systems just to collect extra energy. The practicality of collecting and selling electricity would vary from one state to another, and even between years, based on weather trends. Homeowners in sunny Florida would benefit from solar power systems more than homeowners in rainy Seattle. Installing a solar collection system can be costly, and such systems are currently estimated to take three to four years to pay back the initial investment (Home Energy, p5). I can easily envision installing such a system on my own home without the installation of the system itself making a big change in daily life.
Today, nearly all homes using solar collection systems still also use electricity from the local power grid, as solar systems rarely provide all the energy needed by a home, and homeowners prefer to know that energy is available even on gloomy days.(SOURCE? Loftin?) Should every home invest in its own solar energy system and become independent of the power grid, homeowners would have to pay closer attention to their home energy production and consumption rates, perhaps even sharply limiting their use of electricity in some circumstances. In a standard home in the United States, however, solar power would likely be unable to supply all a home’s needs. Relying on solar power would mean risking a lack of power. Relying on an unreliable power source sounds less like the wave of the future than like living in an undeveloped nation: imagine living with the regular fear of brown-outs or black-outs always at the top of the mind instead of a rarity. Daily life in a United States were each house relied on its own solar collectors for electricity would be much different if people could not count on electricity being available all the time. People would feel less like they are living in a highly developed nation and more like they are living in the underdeveloped world. They would have to be very careful about their electronics, since electronics can be very sensitive to fluctuations in power and could be harmed when it went on, off, or simply faded. Some electronics could be protected by connecting them to uninterruptible, battery-powered devices called UPS devices, which store electricity and help even out brownouts or signal electronics to turn off if the power goes out. But unreliable power would also affect home appliances and change the way people cooked and stored food, and perhaps even how they cleaned clothes and dishes. Such a possibility could become common in daily life if homes in the United States converted to solar energy using systems like those produced and available on the market today. While the environment might benefit from the use of solar energy in the home, homeowners might not like the change very much.
It is possible, even today, to design and build houses that could make independent use of solar power. Making the use of independent solar power practical would require many changes in the design or structure of most homes today, such as the installation of highly energy efficient windows, extra insulation, extremely energy-efficient appliances, and highly efficient lighting such as perhaps LED-based lighting (Beggs, 2011, para 2). A brand new home with the best of modern technology and a large solar-panel array could hope to rely solely on solar power. However, if the United States converted to solar power for homes today, only a few homes in the United States could fully power themselves. Wealthy homeowners might be able to retrofit their homes, but homeowners with more modest budgets might have trouble. The ability to build or retrofit a house to fit within the electricity usage profile necessary for solar power could create different classes of Americans, those with enough electricity, and those without. The presence of social classes based on the availability of electricity would certainly change daily life for some Americans, giving them a new status to strive for, that of being energy-independent. Students and others living in apartments or other rentals, especially those living in old rental units, would probably not have enough power for an entire day and would likely be part of the class of have-not Americans who had to suffer by having unreliable electricity in their daily life.
Back in the mid-20th century, science fiction commonly envisioned a future where everyone went faster and farther. Star Trek proposed that people might someday go anywhere with transporters, while even catoons like The Jetsons showed a future where every family had personal, flying cars. Star Trek actor Avery Brooks brought up the lack of flying cars in an IBM commercial that played as the 21st century opened, saying:
“It’s the year 2000, but where are the flying cars? I was promised flying cars. I don’t see any flying cars! Why? Why? Why? Because millions of people can work together on the Web 24 hours a day, seven days a week! You don’t need flying cars.” (IBM)
The presence of flying cars would’ve been a big change to daily life in the United States. They might’ve allowed people to travel quickly over large distances without having to own an airplane or go to an airport. Their might also have required Americans to study harder for a driver’s license, start driving at a later age and stop driving earlier. Roads would have to be re-engineered, and new privacy laws implemented to prevent flying cars from invading the privacy of people in their own homes or back yards. Were people able to drive flying cars, their daily life might be quite different from what it is today.
A person watching this commercial in 2000 probably wouldn’t have realized that a revolution in ground transportation was right around the corner — just not one that involved flying cars or big changes to anyone’s daily life. The Toyota Prius, released in the fall of 2000, was the first electric hybrid car to enter the automotive market in the United States. Though early hybrid cars were underpowered and produced only a minor benefit in gas mileage, rising oil prices that resulted in higher gas prices, along with improvements in the technology of the Prius and other hybrid cars, soon made them a winning product for automobile manufacturers. A decade later, hybrid cars were very common on American roads. The 900,000 American-owned Pruis hybrids by themselves, not counting other hybrid cars, prevented an estimated 9 million tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere and saved 650 million gallons of gas (The Washington Times). And yet, hybrid cars still require gas to run, and other vehicles that use only alternative energy sources are rare. Transportation and travel still rely heavily on oil power in the United States today. Most hybrid car owners probably don’t feel that their car ownership has changed their daily life much, except that they pay less for gas and require it less frequently. Most Americans who don’t own hybrid cars have felt no impact on their daily lives from the existence of hybrid cars at all.
Adoption of entirely electric cars would be a bigger change to daily life for most consumers. Electric cars would be considerably more environmentally friendly than gas-powered cars, and better even than hybrid cars. Electric vehicles have been in use for decades, such as electric busses used in some cities. These electric vehicles have been of limited use because they required connection directly to an electric wire in order to run. Thus, electric busses could only be used on particular bus routes specifically engineered for use by electric busses. Fortunately, electric cars envisioned to be marketed to consumers are not as limited. Instead of requiring a constant connection, electric cars would require periodic charging at a charging station. Instead of pumping gas at a gas station every few days, owners of electric cars would need to charge their car’s battery at an interval that might be hours or days. It seems likely that should electric cars become popular, they would also become easier to use, faster to charge, and be made to require less frequent charging. These vehicles would likely cause very little change in the average American’s daily life. Instead of going to the gas station, the owner of an electric vehicle might visit a charging station or have one installed in his house. He would simply need to remember to charge his vehicle instead of remembering to fill it with gas. On the balance, electric vehicles might cause a few more changes in an owner’s daily life than hybrid cars do, but not a great change.
Biodiesel vehicles have been used in the United States for more than a decade, but have yet to gain popularity as personal vehicles the way hybrids have. Biodiesel has gained a bad name because many producers in less-developed countries have made space to grow biodiesel crops by clear-cutting large swaths of tropical rainforest or other native landscape. Reports have suggested that due to such practices, biodiesel isn’t more environmentally friendly than regular diesel. At the same time, biodiesel wasn’t wildly popular even before these reports became public knowledge. In part this could be because private owners of biodiesel vehicles must travel to specific fuel stations to fill their gas tanks. For many people this might mean driving far out of their way, and vehicle owners may not be willing to make that sort of daily change in their lives.
The use of food crops or land previously devoted to food crops for growing biodiesel has also been accused of driving up the prices of some foods. Between 1990 and 2005, worldwide demand for grain rose by an average of 21 million tons per year, but in 2007 alone, the demand for grain to make ethanol was 27 million tons (Clayton, 2008, para 6). Biodiesel isn’t the only demand on food, but its increasing use means that the demand is greater than it otherwise would be. Increasing food prices affect everyone. Food is a daily concern and being able to afford both enough food, and food that is good, is an important aspect in the daily life of nearly any person anywhere in the world. In some parts of the world, rising food prices have led to protest, demonstrations, and violence. If the United States were to convert complete to alternate energy, forcing an increase in the use of energy sources like biofuel, the increased demand for grain crops would likely contribute to increasing costs for food in the United States. Americans might be wealthy compared to residents in other parts of the world, but even they would notice the rising food costs. Protests or demonstrations might occur, or even violence if protests got out of hand. Poorer people might even turn to crime more readily in order to find the money to pay for food. Any of these outcomes could affect the daily life of any American. Anyone’s budget can be strained when prices rise quickly, particularly college students who are generally have low incomes.
Air transportation is one type of transportation that might change a great deal if it had to rely on alternate energy sources, because at the moment, no viable sources of alternate fuel exist for airplanes or other flying vehicles. Bio fuel is not considered a good alternate fuel source for aircraft because of its low freezing temperature and other problems, and no other fuel sources are currently available for aircraft use (Daggett et al., p1-2). So, should standard oil-based fuel sources used today not be available, air travel might become impossible. At first glance, a lack of air travel might seem like a small problem, since most people do not travel by air very often. However, it would actually have a large impact on the modern world, even into people’s daily lives. Our modern world relies on air travel to move both people and items quickly from one distant part of the globe to another. The movement of letters, packages, and people help sustain our speed-oriented modern life, and the inability to travel quickly would make travel to other countries or even other states a much more expensive and time-consuming act. Traveling would become a major commitment, and fewer Americans would travel outside of the United States.
As one example, instead of being a simple matter of a few hours on an airplane, an exchange student like me would have to endure days or weeks traveling by boat to the United States from other parts of the world. He would be unable to visit family easily, or have family visit him. For an exchange student like the author of this paper, the end of air travel would have a large impact on his life. Going to college would become a multi-year commitment and require a great deal of personal sacrifice. The community of exchange students and of other people from the same culture would probably be smaller, and a student from overseas might feel much more isolated. He might hesitate to study overseas if getting an education also meant being away from friends and family for years at a time. A lack of air travel would mean that some people would make choices that will affect them for the rest of their life.
Without air travel, Americans wouldn’t be able to get from one coast of the United States to the other in a few hours. Train travel would be the next fastest mass-transit option, followed by use of busses. Locomotives are driven today by diesel, and some train systems, such as Indian Railways in India, are already using biodiesel to fuel trains (The Hindu, paras 1-2). Electric trains that receive power through overhead lines are also already in use in Europe and other parts of the world. Japan has long had electric railways using overhead electric wires, many built after World War II, when the country was experiencing a shortage of coal (Kobayashi, p69). In Japan as well as in Europe, train travel is a normal and popular mass-transit option that many people use in their daily lives, and that many others use for travel outside of their local region.
However, while people on parts of the east coast of the United States use trains for their daily commute or to travel from state to state, the United States doesn’t currently have a train network that would allow people to travel easily and quickly from one coast to the other. So if people were forced to give up air travel today, their only viable mass-transit option in much of the country would be traveling by bus. If they didn’t want to travel by bus, they would have to spend days on the road driving their own car. Either way, transit outside of one’s local region would require a greater investment of time than people are used to in today’s modern world. The effect of this change in travel might not be as large as if air travel was not available, and it might not affect many people on a daily basis. But many people who regularly travel by plane for business, vacation, or to visit family would find that they might need to reconsider their plans or travel less frequently. Otherwise, they would need to be away from home longer than for a comparable trip that used air travel instead of bus or car transportation. A student like me would not be able to take a quick weekend trip, and even spring break might be shortened as students spent more time traveling and less time partying.
In nearly all the transportation and travel scenarios above, electricity or biodiesel have been used as alternative fuel sources. Problems with biodiesel as a fuel source, such as the pressure it places on the cost of food and the way its production can harm the environment, mean that in many cases, biodiesel is a less favorable fuel source compared to electricity. However, electricity is only an environmentally-friendly fuel source if it isn’t generated from coal, oil, or natural gas. In the United States today, 47.1% of electricity is generated from coal-fired plants, another 20.4% is generated from natural-gas fired plants, and 0.9% is generated from petroleum-fired plants. Together, these sources generate 68.4% of the electricity available in the United States. Nuclear power accounts for another 20%. Electricity generated by hydroelectric plants, solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass sources together account for only 11.6% of the electricity generated in the United States (U.S. Energy and Information Administration, 2011, para 4). Should the United States lose the 68.4% of electricity generated from coal, natural gas, and petroleum, everyone living in the United States would be forced to make drastic changes to their daily life. If people in the United States could rely only on the 11.6% of electricity generated by alternative sources, the American economy would suffer greatly as workers would be unable to use computers in offices, grocery stores might be unable to keep foods chilled or frozen, and factories would be unable to maintain production. Even electric cars wouldn’t be useful if they weren’t able to plug in to charge up their batteries. At home, Americans might not be able to heat their homes in the winter or cook using electric or gas-powered appliances. People would be forced to use fireplaces or woodstoves as heat sources, perhaps even for cooking. Laundry and dishes might have to be cleaned by hand, and vacuuming the carpet might become an unheard of luxury. People would not be able to make use of computers, and even if they could charge their cell phones, the local cellular tower might not have the power to connect their phones to the cellular network to complete a call. Daily life would be forced to return to the normal life experienced by someone decades ago, perhaps comparable in many ways to life in the early 20th century.
Fortunately, the United States isn’t likely to lose access to its standard fuel sources of coal, oil, and natural gas overnight. It is more likely that the United States would transition to alternate fuel sources gradually over the course of years or decades, which would allow power companies the time to replace coal, natural gas, and petroleum-fired power plants with plants that generate electricity from hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass sources. At the same time, more homeowners may begin to install solar-collection systems while maintaining their connection to the main electric grid. In this case, people in the United States are not likely to experience a radical shift in the availability of electricity or in how they use electricity to power their daily lives.
One place where alternate energy might make a big difference, besides in the area of pollution, could be in the cost of electricity. Using sources like wind, water, or the sun to generate electricity doesn’t request buying any costly raw materials. Unlike oil, the cost of generating electricity from the wind, water, or the sun is predictable and steady. And in many cases, using sources like wind power makes electricity cheaper to generate overall (Johnson, 2009, para 4). All these factors combined could mean that in the future, electricity could be less costly, with the price also being less sensitive to price fluctuation due to politics, shortages, or other events. On the downside, wind power is very sensitive to weather and other conditions, and tends to be easiest to generate and night and in the winter, rather than during the day and in the summer when electricity is most in demand. So while many more wind power plants could be built in the United States, and use of more wind power would lower costs of electricity on a daily basis, the power generation times wouldn’t be the best match for the needs of many Americans.
Hydroelectic power is also inexpensive compared to traditional sources of electricity. Water has been used to produce energy for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years. Hydroelectric power is about 20% of all electricity produced worldwide today. China is the biggest producer of hydroelectric power, but the United States ranks fourth in the ranks of countries who produce electricity using water powered-generators. Hydroelectric production is very clean, relatively inexpensive, and reliable. Across the world, there are many locations where hydroelectric generators could be built. Unfortunately, in the United States, most of the locations which could create hydroelectric power have already been put into use, which means that it isn’t a likely source of additional electricity for Americans (U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, paras 1-10). Increasing the availability of hydroelectric power in the United States would mean using up large amounts of lands to build dams and reservoirs. While doing so much benefit consumers of electricity by creating reliable sources of inexpensive and reliable electricity, the environmental impacts to the local area would be large. And with more and more land in the United States being used for houses and businesses, building more large dams could mean displacing people, businesses, or even entire cities. Only a few people in the United States would feel the impact of the project on their daily lives, but the impact on each of the affected people would be great. For myself and other consumers of electricity who likely would not be affected by the building of new dams, hydroelectric power would be a big benefit if it lowered electricity bills while ensuring that I would still have enough electricity for suit my lifestyle.
When you take a hard look at how switching to alternate fuel sources might affect life in the United States, the answer depends heavily on when and how the change from traditional sources of power based on oil, coal and natural gas would be changed over to alternate sources, and also the amount of time over which the change would occur. If the United States were to lose access to all energy generated from oil, coal, and natural gas, whether it is used a fuel for vehicles or to generate electricity, then daily life in the United States would change a great deal. This change would be large mostly because the United States is not prepared to generate sufficient amounts of power to serve the needs of all residents of the United States using alternative fuels. Only about 11% of electricity is generated from alternative fuels, up to just over 30% if nuclear power were to continue to be used. If people in the United States woke up tomorrow to the news that they would have to reduce their usage of electricity by 70% starting immediately, they probably wouldn’t even know where to start. People who use natural gas to heat their water, run their household furnace, or for cooking would have no access to hot water, hot air, or a stove on which to cook. Others who rely strictly on electricity would have reduced access to normal parts of their daily life. Either way, Americans would struggle to heat or cool their homes, clean their dishes and clothing, and perhaps even to keep the lights on when they wanted them.
An abrupt disappearance of access to oil, natural gas, and coal would also mean big changes in transportation and travel. Drivers would need to replace their gas-guzzling vehicles with vehicles that used biodiesel or electricity. Since neither option is readily available today, many drivers would find themselves unable to use personal vehicles for weeks or months. Americans used to driving wherever they want to go would have to make use of whatever sources of public transit might be available to them. Those living in areas were busses and trains are already powered by electricity or biodiesel would have an advantage over people in other areas, who might find themselves being forced to ride bikes or even just walk.
Air travel would be nearly impossible if airplanes could not use the kerosene fuel that is standard today. While alternative fuels might yet be developed for use in airplanes, no viable alternate fuel source is available today, so should oil not be available from which kerosene could be distilled, air travel would be impossible. Travelers would be forced to use trains, busses, or boats for long distance travel, and travel from one region to another would take much longer. Exchange students like me who came to the United States from overseas would need to spend days or weeks traveling by boat to return home. Such journeys would consume more time and money than air travel today, and would result in fewer trips being made. Some people who would otherwise engage in international travel or study would probably choose to stay home.
Fortunately, the more likely scenario is that the United States will transition gradually to using alternate fuel for power. A gradual transition will allow for older energy sources to be phased out as new sources are put into place. As the growth of the market share for hybrid cars shows, when an alternate energy source works well, it can be adopted quickly into the daily lives of many people without disruption. Hybrid car owners, some of whom have now had their cars for over 10 years, have had to make few changes to their daily lives, and the changes they have had to make, such as buying gas less frequently, are changes most people would enjoy seeing in their lives. Homeowners who have already installed solar panels on their homes have found that they are able to reduce the amount of energy they must buy from the local power company, and over time, they may pay less for power. They will certainly make less of a negative impact on the environment by generating electricity using solar energy.
It is difficult to guess exactly how life might change in the future, even based on trends in today’s world. Had Doc Brown and Marty McFly traveled from 1985 to 2011, they would probably be surprised at the way some technologies have leapt forward while others have remained little changed. The two greatest changes in the daily lives of Americans are probably the prevalence of the cellular phone and the Internet; aside from those advances, daily life in 1985 isn’t vastly different from daily life in 2011. So far, alternate power has made very little impact on the daily lives of residents of the United States. Chances are, the biggest change caused by alternate energy in the future will be that Americans will be breathing cleaner air and drinking cleaner water. And while everyone wants cleaner air and water, they probably won’t notice changes to their environment on a daily basis.
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What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!