Equity, Access and Democracy in Education

Global Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education, chapter on, written by Joseph Zajda (2008) deals with globalization, comparative education and policy research. Zajda begins with the statement that globalization has essentially changed the world economy in a very distinct way: it has created winners and it has created losers (2008). In other terms, it has created people who have an education and people who do not have education-based variably on their economic, ethnic, gender and/or social status. What has become very clear is that there needs to be less disparity between this equality gap — both within countries and between countries. The current generation has the challenge of handling those inequalities and what first needs to be implemented is a shift in thinking about what education actually is. Rather than viewing education as a commodity, it will be suggested that education is not only a right for all citizens of the world, but it is a major determinant of human flourishing.

Globalization, as well as “marketization and quality/efficiency driven reform” globally since the 1980s have led to major structural and qualitative changes in education. Zajda states that governments, looking for “quality and accountability in education” have focused their attention on international and comparative education data analysis and what they all state is that the one defining goal of education is to make an individual’s social and economic prospects greater (2008). What is clear is that the only way this can happen is by giving quality education to all people on a global scale. Zajda (2008) notes that now with the OECD’s Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), students’ academic achievement is continuously monitored and measured within the ‘internationally agreed framework.’ PISA was a result of the “growing demand for international comparisons of educational outcomes’ (2008).

To measure levels of academic performance in the global culture, the OECD, in co-operation with UNESCO, is using World Education Indicators (WEI) program, covering a broad range of comparative indicators, which report on the resource invested in education and their returns to individuals (OECD 2007; Zajda 2008).

Essentially, PISA examines and assesses the knowledge and skills that are fundamental for an active and full participation in society. PISA looks at all areas such as reading, mathematical proficiency and scientific literacy, all of which are not just evaluated on an academic level, but on a level that will help the individuals in life. This is a promising tool that will have a great impact on the quality of life for many global citizens.

The OECD international survey is expansive in that it reviews education systems in 30 OECD member countries as well as 19 other countries, for a total of countries that includes nearly two-thirds of the world (Zajda 2008). Zajda (2008) states that one-third closely examine issues such as gender differences, special education needs, inequalities in literacy skills and income. The results have been interesting as some countries have depicted upper secondary graduation rates over 70% while other countries have graduation rates that are at or above 90%.

Zajda (2008) states the importance of these numbers from a macro-social perspective, arguing that in certain areas such as language, policy, education and national identity, nation-states are likely to lose their power and capacity to affect their future directions, as the struggle for knowledge domination, production, and dissemination becomes a new for of cultural domination, and a knowledge-driven social stratification (Zajda 2008).

Zajda (2008) goes on to imply that the changing ideas of national identity, language, border politics and citizenship, all of which are important issues when it comes to education policy, need to be examined within a local, regional, and national area — also challenged by globalization (2008). By looking at the challenge from a historical perspective, there is nothing more personal than the educational process, which includes the context of learning, where the child grows learning about their regional and national culture. This is a highly personal affair; then later, when schooling became more institutionalized, the policies of in schools supported community control in school and put the learner in a place where the needs concerning identity and citizenship were near already. Policies are there to make sure that there is conformity as well as identification with the traditions of the culture and nation, in general. However, as education becomes a public concern, the individual’s process of learning is just a piece of the puzzle. Educating the public will undoubtedly affect society in a big way and thus education can’t only be seen as an expense, but it has to be viewed as an investment as well — but more as an investment in humanity and the fact that education for all will affect the world at large — especially now that we live in a globalized world.

After looking at the education and forming of the individual as part of a society or nation, it’s important that we look at the educational process and how is relates to globalization. Zajda (2008) states that with globalization comes global inequality, as mentioned earlier and therefore a polarization of societies will only get worse because of the unequal distribution of power, wealth, class and education. As the gap between rich and poor people gets wider, there will be even a bigger disparity when it comes to education. Zagda (2008) notes this disparity in the terms of that the wealthiest 2% of the world’s age population owns more than half the global household wealth, while the bottom half of adults owns barely 1%. This is shockingly problematic because as individuals who have so little to spend on the necessities such as food and shelter, what does that leave left over for education?

There are so many inequalities in education and they don’t just surround a family’s economy; gender inequality is also an area where we can see major social stratification and a division of power (Zajda 2008). Gender inequality is inherently relation to other issues such as ethnicity, race, power, status and class (2008). This is only perpetuated by the fact that women are taught that they should learn skills that will land them in typically lower paying jobs (such as clerical work or other) and this means that they will make less money, thus their social status will remain low. This brings up so many other problems because, without enough money, how are they going to pay someone to take care of their children so that they can go to work. It appears to be a cyclical problem and one that is very difficult to move out of. Around the globe women are up against discrimination when it comes to education and work, which leads to social segregation (2008). Zajda states that globally, “one in three women are illiterate compared with one in five men” and “overall more than 60% of the world’s illiterate people are women.” These statistics lead to the understanding that it is because women are deemed as second-class citizens when it comes to education. When a girl or woman is up against social discrimination when it comes to her gender, the implications for the future are detrimental — not only to the individual, but this will have an effect on the community at large, eventually affecting the state of the world.

Racial discrimination is another topic to be discussed when it comes to inequalities in education on a global level. We see this in Europe as effects of colonialism and anti-Semitism and we even see it in the United States. The importance of education that is irrespective of an individual’s gender, ethnic or social status cannot be understated. The effects of discrimination on any level perpetuate the gap between those who have and those who don’t have.

Changing the way we look at learning may be a good place to begin when it comes to the topic of transforming both learning and teacher. First of all, perhaps learning shouldn’t be viewed as a commodity or an investment. Perhaps looking at learning as the predictor of human flourishing would be better. It would only require a slight shift in the way we think to understand that education or the lack thereof will have a huge impact on societies that therefore will have a global impact (and a historical impact as a result, further down the road). There are several different factors that have led to teachers’ ability to bring up certain topics and ask certain questions about the world at large. There are certain market ideologies that have been created and allowed to flourish as well, which force the direction of teaching and thus learning into a certain way. Erich Fromm implied that corporate sponsorship and intervention in schools and education have degraded the level of teaching and education and it perpetuates what he calls “alienation.” Fromm suggests that when people are so alienated from his fellow man and nature, he is being transformed into a commodity and will experience his life and education as an investment, “which must bring him the maximum profit obtainable under existing market conditions” (Fromm 1957). What Fromm was implying is that the form of education described is seen as a way of having rather than being.

Fromm wrote those words back in 1957, but it is still utterly true in that education, now more than ever, is viewed as a commodity; we are told from the time we are very small children that education is an investment. In the society we live in, there is no doubt that it is. The education we either have or don’t have is a direct influence on what kind of job we get and, ultimately, what kind of life we lead. We very rarely — if ever — think of our education as a piece of the puzzle — that is, as a way of being directly associated with human flourishing. By gaining the best education we can, we wouldn’t be readily willing to agree that it is alienating us from the rest of the world, but it is in the way we think about education and in the way that we have opinions about who should get an education.

What can educators do to make the impact of globalization on education more positive? The distortion of education and the misuse of both teachers and learners is a matter of very deep worry. The task is to weaken the corrupt processes that go on under the label “education” in systems around the globe. Societies and systems hardened by globalization in which there are unbalanced connection when it comes to authority and power make it very difficult, but not impossible with a shift in the way we view education.


Fromm, E. (1957) the Art of Loving (1995 edn.) London: Thorsons.

Zajda, Joseph., Davies, Lynn., Majhanovich, Suzanne. (2008) Comparative and Global

Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education (Globalisation,

Comparative Education and Policy Research). Springer; 1st edition.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Grade Birdie
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Thank you!!!
Customer 453405, June 17th, 2022
Some people do not know how to work this site, as in myself. A text should come to my phone when a person is requiring more informatio about an assignment.
Customer 453527, June 14th, 2022
Excellent work!!! Delivered as promised
Customer 452729, July 30th, 2021
Thank you!!
Customer 453201, March 20th, 2022
Thank you so much!!!!!!!!!!
Customer 452837, December 15th, 2021
Thank you
Customer 452969, May 16th, 2022
Customer 452875, November 19th, 2021
Medical Biochemistry
Great work and on time. Thanks
Customer 453269, June 15th, 2022
very fast
Customer 453631, September 19th, 2022
Paper was completed early!
Customer 453481, June 14th, 2022
Customer 452927, December 15th, 2021
Medical Biochemistry
Great work and on time thanks
Customer 453269, June 15th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code BIRDIE