Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer Discussion

Care of Patients With Cancer

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Because cancer is a complex disorder that often progresses over long periods of time — including long periods before an actual diagnosis can be made — it is very useful to medical practitioners to identify various stages in the progression of the disease. Diagnosis may occur as the result of presenting complaints that cause a patient to seek medical help, or diagnosis may occur when routine check-ups lead to a suspicion by a physician or a laboratory specialist that a more thorough investigation is indicated. Indeed, one of the reasons why certain procedures are included in routine annual physicals is because these tests result in a diagnosis at sufficiently high rates to make them worth conducting. As medical technology advances, the procedures are modified accordingly — and sometimes the frequency standards for these procedures are modified, as well.

The nomenclature used to indicate the progression of cancer growth and spread is quite easy to understand, remember, and communicate. Basically, the nomenclature uses the first letter of the feature that is being measured or gauged, and then adds a second letter — or sometimes a number — to relay additional information to the medical practitioners who will develop a treatment plan. The system of nomenclature also provides a very important method for tracking and communicating changes — not only at the time when a patient is first seen for the disease, but also as interventions are carried out.

The TNM staging system is the most commonly used approach to staging. The TNM staging system is reviewed and revised as needed every 6 to 8 years as advances in cancer treatment are made (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The TNM system describes the tumor, the node, and metastases of each cancer (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The letter T. stands for tumor and is used to describe the original tumor and any growth into nearby tissues. The letter N. stands for node and it is used to indicate if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. The letter M. stands for metastasis and is used to tell whether the cancer has spread to other more distant parts of the body. Within the T. category, tumor size is described in terms of centimeters (21/2 cm = about 1 inch) or millimeters (10 mm = 1 cm). The letters TX mean the tumor can’t be measured. The letters TO mean that there is no evidence of a primary tumor: the original tumor can’t be found. The letters Tis indicate that the cancer cells are growing only in superficial layers of tissue and that it is not growing into deeper tissue; Tis also stands for in situ or pre-cancer. Numbers just after the T. describe the tumor size or amount of spread; the higher the T. number, the larger the tumor and/or the more it has spread, according to this configuration: T1, T2, T3, and T4.

The N. category describes the extent to which the cancer may have spread into nearby lymph nodes (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The letters NX means the nearby lymph nodes can’t be evaluated. The letters N0 means that the nearby lymph nodes do not contain any cancer. Numbers just after the N. describe the size, location, and number of lymph nodes involved; the higher the N. number, the more lymph nodes contain cancer, according to this configuration: N1, N2, N3, and N4.

The M. category tells if there are distant metastases, a term that means the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The letters MX means metastasis can’t be evaluated (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The letters M0 means that no distant cancer spread was found. The letters M1 mean that the cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues; that is, distant metastases were found in the body. It is important to recognize that each type of cancer has its own version of the classification system; therefor, the letters and numbers will not always stand for the same condition in each type of cancer.

The values for T, N, and M. are combined in order to assign an overall stage. The conventional stage groups are stage I through stage IV, with the Roman numeral IV standing for the most cancer present than in the lower numbered stages (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Also, the stages may be further subdivided by letters A and B. Stage 0 means the cancer is at a very early stage, has not spread, and is confined only to the area of the primary tumor; this is also called carcinoma in situ. Stage I cancers are the least advanced and often carry a good prognosis. Although more advanced stage cancers are also treated, the prognosis is usually not as good as for cancers in the lower stages (“American Cancer Society,” 2014).

Some cancers are also given a grade in a process called differentiation, which is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells appear under the microscope (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Grade can be an indicator of severity since cancers cells that look more abnormal also tend to spread and grow faster (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The grade is assigned a number from 1 to 4 (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Cancer cells with lower numbers look more like normal tissue than do cancer cells with higher numbers (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Cancer cells that are higher grade typically have a worse prognosis and may require different types of treatments than low-grade cancers (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The grade of a cancer can affect the treatment and the prognosis even when it does not change the stage of the cancer (“American Cancer Society,” 2014).

Some cancers use a different grading system. For instance, prostate cancer is assessed using a Gleason score, which is a composite assigned to the two areas that contain most of the cancer (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Added together, these number make up the Gleason score — a number from 2 to 10 (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). For some sarcomas, the grade is based on differentiation and the numb er of cells that appear to be dividing, and how much of the tumor consists of dying tissue (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). These attributes provide information about the speed of the cancer growth and how quickly the cancer is likely to spread (“American Cancer Society,” 2014).

The type of cell that makes up a cancer is also important since the type of cancer cell can affect the outlook, the treatment, and the staging determination (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). For instance, cancers in squamous cells and in adenocarcinoma cells are staged differently (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). The location of a tumor may also affect the outlook and is a factor in staging (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). For example, cancer of the esophagus is staged differently depending on where in the esophagus the cancer is located: upper, middle, or lower third (“American Cancer Society,” 2014). Tumor marker (prostate specific antigen or PSA) levels also affect stage determination in prostate cancer.

Complications Of Cancer and Side Effects of Treatment

The complications of cancer and the treatment of cancer include the following: Pain, fatigue, difficulty breathing, nausea, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, chemical changes in the body, brain and nervous system problems, unusual immune system changes (paraneoplastic syndromes), low blood count, anemia, bleeding, lymphedema, and fatigue (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014).

Medical clinics and hospitals that treat cancer patients are aware of the delicate balance that must be achieved between treatment of the disease and maintenance of the bodily systems. Aggressive treatments of some disease have given way to more moderate treatments or to combinations of treatments that have less overall negative impact on the physiology of the patients receiving treatment.

Methods To Lessen Physical And Psychological Effects

Approaches to the treatments to lessen the physical effects of cancer are determined largely by the source of the pain (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014). The source of the pain may be the cancer itself caused by pressure from a growing tumor or chemical substances given off by a tumor. Treatments to eliminate the pain by removing the cancer include chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014). Medication, acupressure, acupuncture, massage, relaxation, and physical therapy can also be used to treat the pain of cancer (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014). Medications to treat the pain of cancer include the following: Local nerve block anesthetics, over-the-counter and prescription-strength pain relievers, weak opioid (derived from opium) medications, and strong opioid medications (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014).

The non-pain related physical and psychological effects of cancer include: fatigue, hot flashes, joint pains, change in sexual function, change in bowel or bladder function, anxiety, depression, change in body image, change in weight, memory loss or confusion, numbness and tingling, difficulty sleeping, and family discord (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014). Copings strategies for psychological effects of cancer include yoga, massage, meditation, relaxation, psychotherapy, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), Talking therapies, such as cognitive behavior therapy and psychotherapy, can help cancer patients understand, recognize, and deal with the stages of grief that they experience at the time of their diagnosis and during treatment. Also, major cancer treatment centers have specialty clinics and groups that are specifically designed to help cancer patients through all phases of their cancer treatment (“Mayo Clinic,” 2014).

One of the problems that continues to plague the treatment of the disease is that people seek a silver bullet, often scouring the Internet for information about alternative or unusual interventions that someone reports as being successful. It is important for people who have the disease to understand that competent physicians and nurses will work with them to find the best fit in contemporary treatment that is possible for them. This is the recommended avenue for patients to take, although no one should be discouraged from using legitimate crowdsourcing websites that are supported by actual licensed physicians and researchers.


Diseases and Conditions: Cancer. Complications. Mayo Clinic Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378

Understanding Your Diagnosis: Staging. American Cancer Society. Retreived from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/staging

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Grade Birdie
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Thank you so much!!!!!!!!!!
Customer 452837, December 15th, 2021
well written, thank you!
Customer 452927, December 11th, 2021
Business Studies
Excellent Work!
Customer 452897, December 3rd, 2021
Customer 452619, March 22nd, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
This is wonderful work. Thank you
Customer 452675, June 2nd, 2021
well written, Thanks so much!
Customer 452927, December 19th, 2021
good job!
Customer 452927, November 9th, 2022
writer went above and beyond, thank you.
Customer 452927, January 6th, 2023
Community Health Nursing
Customer 453269, July 13th, 2022
very satisfied
Customer 452619, March 22nd, 2021
Religious studies
It's a great work! Thanks
Customer 453589, July 20th, 2022
well written
Customer 452927, October 25th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code BIRDIE