Coping Strategies in People With Diabetes
Self-Care Coping Strategies in People With Diabetes: A Qualitative Exploratory Study
One of the greatest challenges of managing type 1 and 2 diabetes is that it is a lifestyle-related disease and as such must largely be monitored by the patient. “Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). It can be extremely difficult for the patient to undertake such changes on a daily basis when returned to the environment which has many temptations to eschew eating healthfully and exercising. According to the study “Self-care coping strategies in people with diabetes: a qualitative exploratory study,” there is a need to better understand what factors better promote self-care to prescribe more effective treatment regimens for sufferers.
Purpose and research questions
To better understand the degree to which patients may struggle with self-monitoring, this qualitative, exploratory study was undertaken using a sample of 17 patients from GP practices and diabetes clinics in Ireland. It included patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. The patients has been prescribed a variety of self-care regimes (both oral and insulin-dependent) and had a wide range of different associated complications. This was designed to gain a full and generalized portrait of self-care in relation to the illness.
The main method of assessment deployed was the use of tape-recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews which were coded using open and axial procedures. Responses were classified after the fact according to generalized categories which were then validated by an outside authority. The categories which emerged corresponded with “health belief, health value, self-efficacy, and locus of control frameworks” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). This study was designed to act as a guide for future treatment programs and to better understand the management of an increasingly common illness.
The author used both qualitative and quantitative studies to justify the purpose of the research study. Both recent and historical studies were cited as part of the review. For example, the author noted that a large-scale intervention study found that tighter glucose control has been associated with more effective containment of blood sugar reading and better metabolic control. This was enabled with the introduction of home glucose monitoring in the 1980s. As well as improvements in technology, however, better support structures were also helpful. “A recent qualitative study examining self- monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes suggests the role of the health professional is crucial to patient understanding of their blood glucose fluctuations and whether or not the patient responds to the high blood glucose reading with an appropriate self-care action” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009).
While the literature review is comprehensive in its diversity of types of studies, one problem is that the authors do not always specifically cite the names of those who performed the study in the text of the article; this information is available if the citations are consulted on the works cited page but can make for confusing reading. Also, the study results are reported without specific statistics supporting the analysis as in this example. “A meta-analysis of self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes, reported self-management education improves glycaemic control at immediate follow-up, and increased contact time increases the effect. However, the benefit declines one to three months after the intervention ceases, suggesting that learned behaviours may change over time and continuing education is necessary” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). This information is interesting and useful but it is difficult to evaluate the quality of the study based upon the way the results are presented. The quality of research of the studies composing the meta-analysis and the specific, stated aim of the study are not stated.
One or two specific named studies are referenced such as the fact that Bradley et al. observed “patients reported a higher self-care burden when insulin was added to their regimen” and Williams et al. “found patients who feel their health care provider understands and supports them were more likely to have higher levels of self-confidence resulting in successful behaviour change” but once again, there is a lack of detail in terms of how these studies were conducted which makes it difficult to evaluate the quality of results (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). The authors do not evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the studies or even note the years they were performed in the text. Overall, the research indicates the difficulty of managing diabetes with self-care strategies and the necessity of outside support to guide home regimes. It justifies the importance of the central research question but could have been performed in a more thorough and easy-to-evaluate manner.
Conceptual / Theoretical Framework
The study was relatively small (17 individuals) and drawn from a relatively narrow sampling (all came from Ireland and were therefore somewhat homogeneous in terms of ethnic and cultural backgrounds). A grounded theory approach was taken in which interviews were coded and then used to inductively develop a theory about diabetes self-management. After semi-structured interviews were transcribed, recorded, and evaluated by both the researchers and an outside authority, the responses were classified into different categories of health belief, health value, self-efficacy, and locus of control frameworks. Based upon these responses, the researchers developed a conceptual model of different types of personalities in terms of how the patient engages in positive self-management of his or her diabetes.
First, “the proactive manger adopts a healthy lifestyle. Many said that they viewed their diabetes as a condition, not a disease, which they had to manage” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). Proactive managers tended to be disproportionately male and were overall healthier than their counterparts because of the active approach to diabetes management which was undertaken. These patients placed an extremely high personal value upon the benefits of self-care and were willing to accept full responsibility for their diabetes self-management. They were also willing to engage in glycemic control activities such as “testing, recording, assessment of blood glucose records), and adjustment of self-care as required” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). Individuals were willing to engage in meal planning and label-reading, tested their numbers on a regular basis and sought out help at various clinics for assistance and information about new regimes.
In contrast, “the passive follower prefers structure to flexibility, with no variation in medication or meal times” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). These patients, who were more often dependent upon oral medications exclusively, were consistent in following a self-care regime but they were resistant to change and more dependent upon others in managing their care, such as spouses who were given the responsibility of meal planning. Finally, the nonconformist type was actively resistant to treatment and self-screening. “They do not follow many of the activities of their self-care regimen, especially prescribed dietary and activity changes” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). These patients were more often insulin-dependent, found diabetes to be an unsurmountable illness, and suffered more complications as a result.
This typology derived from the grounded research study was intended to provide healthcare providers in the field of diabetes research with greater assistance in terms of how they approached diabetes management with their patients, enabling them to tailor their advice to suit the needs of different mindsets to promote better self-care. It also was intended to act as a springboard for future research studies in the field of diabetes research. “The findings from this study may be relevant to the design of quantitative instruments addressing self-care coping strategies in patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions” (Collins, Bradley, O’Sullivan, & Perry 2009). Gender, age, and current regime (oral vs. insulin-dependent patients) should all be taken into consideration when providing advice and structuring future research.
Collins, M., Bradley, C., O’Sullivan, T. & Perry, I. (2009). Self-care coping strategies in people
with diabetes: a qualitative exploratory study. BMC Endocrine Disorders 9:6 Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/9/6
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!