Branches of the US Government: The US Congress

Political Science: Government II Written Assignment

Part One: Subject Areas Covered

Since the founding of the US, it has relied on the participation of citizens to govern at the national, state, and local levels. Civic engagement is essential in US governance since it ensures that representative democracy continues to flourish and that the US citizens continue to influence the government. The constitution also grants and protects the rights of US citizens as they participate in the countrys governance (Kovera). This is an essential aspect of democracy, and over the years, many people have struggled to ensure that their right to participate is acquired, defended, and protected. Hence, this paper will address the subjects that deal with US governance and civic participation. First, this paper will address one of the branches of the US government, specifically the Congress, by exploring its structure and powers and its role in the countrys governance. This paper will also explore the equal rights amendment under civil rights and federalism, its meaning, and its relation to the constitution. The contemporary problem identified is continuing racial discrimination, followed by a brief description of a possible solution.

Branches of the US Government: The US Congress

Congress is among the three branches of the US government alongside the Executive and the federal judiciary. The structure and powers of Congress, Congressional terms and length, and the requirements for serving and representation in Congress are described under Article I, from section one to section ten, of the constitution. It consists of two parts, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The vice president of the US becomes the president of the senate and only casts a vote when senators are evenly divided. The powers initially granted to Congress include tax, regulating commerce and trade, and maintaining a navy and an army. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress has had authority that even the national government lacks. Constitutional amendments granted Congress additional powers including, the power to declare war (hence an essential role in national defense), borrow and coin money, grant copyrights, and patents, and establish laws to regulate bankruptcy and naturalization (Krutz & Sylvie, p. 51).

Civil Rights: Equal Rights Amendment

The founding principles of the US are justice, equality, and liberty. However, not every American citizen has always enjoyed equal treatment and opportunities under the law or the liberties extended to other citizens. Over the years, there have been several movements, including womens movements, to gain equal rights for every American citizen irrespective of sex, race, color, and religion. The 19th constitution amendment failed to end discrimination against women in employment, education, and other areas. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) mandated equal rights for every American citizen irrespective of sex. However, several attempts to pass this bill into law failed since its first introduction to the US Congress in 1923 after the constitution granted voting rights to women. The main objections were established on the fear that passing it into law would deny women alimony and custody over their children if they divorced and that they would be subjected to military conscription. Even though its ratification failed, Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendment was passed as a federal statute (Krutz & Sylvie, p.170-177). This title prohibits any form of discrimination in educational institutions based on sex in healthcare access, dormitory space, and other school activities.

Federalism and the Constitution

Federalism refers to the institutional arrangement in which two relatively autonomous government levels are established, each with the capacity to act directly on behalf of the American people. Each of these government levels has been granted authority to do so by the national constitution. The US constitution has various provisions concerning how the US federalism system functions. Some of these provisions restrict the scope of the state and national power, while others delineate it. The remaining define the relationships between the federal government and states and the relationship between states. These powers are found in Article I Section 8 of the national constitution. These powers are specifically essential in directing the countrys governance because they define the jurisdictional boundaries of the federal government. Congress was granted authority over foreign and national affairs. For instance, it can protect property rights, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, borrow money, tax, and declare war if there is a threat to the American people. Also, the state powers were initially not contained in the constitution, but after ratifying the same, various state powers were included in the constitution. Such powers include conducting elections, public health and safety provision, and constitutional amendments ratification (Krutz & Sylvie, p.71-75).

Contemporary Political Problem

Civil Rights: Racial Injustices Suffered by African Americans in the United States

Despite the various movements to secure equal rights for American citizens regardless of race, African Americans are still struggling with racial discrimination in the US. For starters, many still live in predominantly black communities where housing covenants and laws forced their ancestors. Even blacks in the suburban areas are found in the black suburbs. Many black students still attend predominantly black schools (United States Courts). Today, many of them are trapped in poor neighborhoods due to the legacies of persistent racism and Jim Crow. As a result, these areas are characterized by high rates of violence and crime. To worsen the matter, police also appear to be engaging in racial profiling, singling people of color for greater attention. For instance, many cases have gained mass attention due to racial profiling by police, such as police brutality against people of color and wrongful or unfair sentencing. Such issues have resulted in the deaths of many innocent blacks. Thus, many African American movements have taken to the streets to protest what they believe is racial discrimination because of their color and the failure of politicians to pay more attention to these issues.

The solution to the Identified Problem

Opinion research has proven that American citizens embrace the human rights concept as an essential societal value. Equal opportunities free from racial discrimination based on race are a fundamental human right (Kovera). Evidence shows the ongoing presence of racial discrimination in the US, which warrants the political environment to implement a permanent solution. Hence, there need to be discussions on this sensitive topic both by the American and international societies to generate potential solutions. Ideally, the US government could consider ratifying the constitution to include more ideas to guarantee equal protection rights for every American citizen. In the implementation, it would help to ensure that anyone who acts against the stipulations of the constitution in terms of racial discrimination faces the full wrath of the law irrespective of who the offender is. Most importantly, the government should promote civic education since white dominance over blacks is also an issue of the mind (Mouffe).

Works Cited

Kovera, Margaret Bull. Racial disparities in the criminal justice system: Prevalence, causes, and a search for solutions.Journal of Social Issues75.4 (2019): 1139-1164.

Krutz, Glen S., and Sylvie Waskiewicz.American government. OpenStax College, Rice University, 2016.

Mouffe, Chantal.On the political. Routledge, 2011.

United States Courts, History Brown v. Board of Education Re-enactment, (accessed on 31st October 2021).

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Grade Birdie
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Really an excellent work.
Customer 452483, September 24th, 2020
Criminal Justice
Excellent work, thank you!
Customer 453443, January 30th, 2023
Indigenous film
Lots of grammar mistakes but ok.
Customer 453631, October 3rd, 2022
Could not have said it any better myself. Literally, I could not have said it any better myself
Customer 453239, April 23rd, 2022
It has a 12% source comparison ( plag) but it's ok. Will use site again
Customer 453527, June 10th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Thank you for an excellent job done.
Customer 452589, February 18th, 2021
Nursing Ethics
Great work
Customer 453269, June 1st, 2022
excellent work!
Customer 452927, February 12th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Super good paper I love the work
Customer 453189, March 21st, 2022
Good work.
Customer 452787, December 1st, 2021
Customer 452537, November 13th, 2020
Customer 453049, February 7th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code BIRDIE