Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States

Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States

In order to understand what an anti-miscegenation law is, it is important to look at the definition of the term miscegenation. This term is derived from two Latin words miscere, which means to mix, and genus, which refers to type, family, or descent (Frederickson, 1971). This term has therefore been used to refer to the mixing of racial groups, ethnicities, and in rare circumstances different religions, in most cases referring to cohabitation or intermarriage between such groups. It has also been used to describe situations where two persons of different racial backgrounds produce offspring without necessarily cohabiting or getting married. In the United States this term was mostly used in the context of white man’s racist attitudes and black man’s alleged craving for the white woman (Jordan, 1968). The very initial cases of racial mixing were witnessed with the emergence of the system of slavery. These initial cases commonly happened under the threat of violence using physical domination and rape (Frederickson, 1971). These interracial relationships lead to children of mixed races and eventually became a way in which power relationships between whites and blacks in America was manifested.

The existence of such relationships prompted several states, even before the establishment of the United States, to enact anti-miscegenation laws, this remained part of American law until late 1960s (Jordan, 1968). These anti-miscegenation laws were passed by states individually illegalizing miscegenation, or interracial marriage as commonly known currently, and interracial sex. This law considered miscegenation as a felony, officiating of weddings between individuals of different races was also prohibited including related ceremonies. However, there was lack of uniformity on the felony charges one would be held guilty of since they could not be held guilty of miscegenation. The charges of felony that would be brought against such individuals included adultery or fornication. Specifically, the anti-miscegenation laws banned whites and non-white groups from getting married, these mainly targeted blacks, but in some cases also included Native Americans and Asians. Other than just criminalizing marriage, the anti- miscegenation laws in a number of states also criminalized sex and cohabitation between the groups concerned.

It is obvious that these laws were not only numerous but also varied in various aspects. The first difference was on defining individuals who would fall in the prohibited class, this varies from one geographical location of the states to another. What seemed unanimous was the prohibition of Negro-White marriages which all states practiced. In other states the marriage between Whites and Mongoloid persons was forbidden, while in other states the marriage between Negros and Indians was forbidden. A few states also prohibited marriages between Indians and Whites. The emphasis on the prohibition of racial intermarriage also differed, in some states it was so abhorrent that there was a constitutional provision to that effect. This difference in emphasis also brought a difference on the application of such laws to the children of miscegenous marriages, some have not been meant for this group whereas others do not have a clear interpretation (Jordan, 1968).

Impact of this policy

Several myths focusing on racial segregation in America have assumed that the different racial groups have lived apart all along and that this is dictated by nature and little can be done to change the situation. However, the fact is that in the early times when American colonies were being settled, Black slaves and White indentured servants worked together. This meant that these two groups were close to each other and thus it was common to experience interracial attraction. With these two groups relating there was a complication on the social boundary between Blacks and Whites since there was not much difference between them, both involved in hard labor even though Blacks were slaves and the Whites were free and only chose temporary contract. In order to clearly bring out the distinction, anti-miscegenation laws checked on mixing of race (Freeman, 2005). It was argued that this mixing of race undermined sanctity of free White labor and the legitimacy of Black’s position as property and this had to be corrected. In addition to this, anti-miscegenation laws also classified a racial hierarchy in which Whites were considered free while Blacks were not. These anti-miscegenation laws brought about a gap between the Whites and Blacks with the latter getting inferior treatment. Whites started mistreating Blacks especially the White male slaveholders who demanded sex from their Black female slaves, this despite the ban on interracial sex. The White males could violate these rules and get away with it which was not the case with the Blacks. Whenever the Black women tried to resist the White men, they would be punished, raped, or sold on the auction block.

These laws in fact led to the increase of interracial sex and ultimately mixed-race offspring, this led to a new dilemma, that of how to identify such offspring. The traditional way of identifying a child status was by considering the heritage of the father, however going by this rule would make most mixed-race children to be white and free since most interracial sex was between white male and black female (Davis, 1991). This complicated the line between white and black, slave and free. This complication was solved by changing the rule of determining the status of child from patrilineal to matrilineal. This ensured that children of mixed-race remained black and more or less forever slaves. However this did not make things very simple since even the white females also started to fall in love with the black slaves. Things even became more complicated with the arrival of the Asian immigrants since the anti-miscegenation laws could not be applied equally. In general, all other races were treated as inferior regardless of their contribution to the American land. This meant that all the non-white races had to come together to survive and this created a new set of racial fears. The whites feared that there was a potential of an independent community rising and this would be a community of foreigners in American soil. This led the whites to try all manner of discrimination against the other races in order to make them remain inferior. Such actions became violent and even led to the death of many non-whites who with time also retaliated by killing whites at the slightest opportunity (Freeman, 2005). This gave rise to a society characterized by crime and discrimination, a trend that is still experienced up-to-date in the United States of America.

Other than the Africans who were taken to America majorly as slaves, there were immigrants from several other regions including China, India and Japan. These immigrants majorly provided expert services to the economy of America. Since even they were discriminated against by the anti-miscegenation laws most of them opted to get back to their countries and those who wanted to move into America also got discouraged. This made the American economy to lose out on manpower which had a direct effect on the society. The society could not take advantage of new skills from other countries which would otherwise have been shared among them.

In general anti-miscegenation laws directly encouraged and motivated racism in America, it may have not been the beginning of racism but it was one way through which racism received some legal backing. With racism on the rise the American citizens were not getting a chance to contribute collectively to the development of the country (Freeman, 2005). This collective contribution is very critical for the development and success of any state. By denying a particular class of persons a chance to access education, they become useless as far as technological and medical contributions in the society are concerned. The ultimate effect of this is that there will be obstruction to the economic progress of the state hence that of the society. By preventing interracial marriages and relationship, the laws basically prevented mixing of cultures, this means that the different races would not understand each other culturally and thus do not appreciate the differences and similarities that exist. This creates an ethnocentric society which cannot develop socially and people do not relate well. Even though the white Americans tried so much to separate races, the truth is that there are occasions where the different races would have to come together, it is therefore important that other races are accepted and not merely tolerated. These anti-miscegenation laws also destroyed the morality of the society. The races that were considered superior mistreated the ones that were considered inferior since there were no repercussions for such actions, this was crime that was indirectly legalized. Immoral sexual acts such as rape, prostitution, fornication and even abortions increased significantly.

Conclusion

Even though anti-miscegenation laws were still present in some states as late as in the 1960s, most states had done away with them. Most states did away with such laws due to a number of cases that were brought before courts that ruled in favor of the complainants. Most civil rights proponents also joined the war against anti-miscegenation laws and of much importance was that the laws were against the constitutional provisions which protected the rights of individuals. Even though these laws were abolished with time, the effects are still felt to date.

References

Davis, F. James. 1991. Who is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State

Frederickson, George M. 1971. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American

Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.

Freeman, Victoria. 2005. “Attitudes Toward ‘Miscegenation’ in Canada, the United States, New

Zealand, and Australia, 1860-1914.” Native Studies Review 16(1): 39-66.

Jordan, Winthrop. 1968. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812.

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Grade Birdie
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Nursing
i
Customer 452927, December 15th, 2021
Social Work and Human Services
Thank you for an excellent job done.
Customer 452589, February 18th, 2021
Philosophy
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!!
Customer 453853, November 22nd, 2022
Other
The Essay is awesome. I would like to have an outline written up if possible
Customer 452537, November 16th, 2020
Business Studies
Did a really god job with the writting
Customer 453189, June 9th, 2022
Nursing
Thanks very much. Boring topic, huh?
Customer 452523, October 27th, 2020
Psychology
Poor customer service from the support team
Customer 453209, May 30th, 2022
Nursing
Thank you this is perfedt
Customer 452969, January 18th, 2022
Psychology
Great job I received my order early advance a day.
Customer 452707, June 30th, 2021
Philosophy
Thank you so much , you guys are the best . You save my life and I really appreciate your help.
Customer 453375, April 29th, 2022
Other
.m.m
Customer 452537, November 13th, 2020
Community Health Nursing
great work but not on time.
Customer 453269, August 1st, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!
1
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code BIRDIE